Dendritic nanomaterials for removing contaminants from water
Mentor: F. Javier De la Mata de la Mata
Phone: (+34) 918854654
University: Universidad de Alcalá
Partner Host Institution: IMDEA Water
Keywords: dendrimers, nanomaterials, contaminants, functionalized materials, water treatment

Dendritic nanomaterials for removing contaminants from water

Water contamination with biological (nucleic acids; bacteria, viruses) or chemical (aromatic compounds, metal ions) traces is an important healthy issue. These traces are almost impossible to eliminate by traditional methods and require alternatives, as can be the use of trapping systems, which would interact or bind to these traces, eliminating them from water. For example, chelating systems can be used for metal ions or ammonium compounds can interact with aromatic rings. Regarding biological residues, it has been shown that polyionic macromolecules have high affinity for them, even being able to kill bacteria and viruses.
The anchorage of polyfunctional macromolecules, with the adequate properties described above, to not soluble water materials or to membranes used in water purification could be of interest to improve water purification. Our research group has an important knowledge on the study of interactions between polyionic macromolecules and nucleic acids, viruses and bacteria. Also, we have recently anchorage these macromolecules to materials as gold, silver, magnetic and mesoporous silica nanoparticles, observing that they keep their ability to interact with the biological systems. We have also started the modification of bulk silica with the aim to study the bactericide properties of the new material.
Of the previous systems, we can highlight magnetic nanoparticles and bulk silica modified with the polyionic macromolecules, since these materials are not soluble in water and can be easily retired from it with a magnet or by filtration. Moreover, the anchorage of the polyionic macromolecules follows well stablished procedures.
The polyionic macromolecules that we employed are dendrimers and dendrons. These polymer-type macromolecules are synthesized step by step leading to well define structures with a multivalent surface. This multivalency increases the activity of individual groups when attached to dendritic structures. Furthermore, due to these characteristics, it is easy to stablish relationships between structure and activity.
For this project, we propose the study of magnetic nanoparticles and of bulk silica covered with cationic and chelating moieties as water purification systems. Since we have prepared silica with cationic fragments, we have to develop a synthetic procedure for analogous systems on magnetic nanoparticles surface. On the other hand, we have to develop also multichelating systems to be grafted to magnetic nanoparticles and bulk silica. The active groups will be supported on dendritic structures that will generate multiple points of interaction on the surface of materials.

Departament: Organic Chemistry and Inorganic Chemistry
Research Group: Dendrimers for biomedical applications
More Information:
Relevants projects on the area: Dendronization as a synthetic tool for obtaining dendritic nanosystems specifically designed for use in biomedical applications. CTQ2017-86224-P (MINECO)
Relevants publications on the area: 1.- Dendronized Magnetic Nanoparticles for HIV Capture and Rapid Diagnostic. A. Barrios-Gumiel, D. Sepúlveda-Crespo, J. L. Jiménez Fuentes, R. Gómez, M. A. Muñoz-Fernández, F. J. de la Mata; 2019, Biomaterials, submitted.
2.- Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Decorated with Carbosilane Dendrons as New Non-viral Oligonucleotide Delivery Carriers. Á. Martínez, E. Fuentes-Paniagua, A. Baeza, J. Sánchez-Nieves, M. Cicuéndez, R. Gómez, F. J. de la Mata, B. González, M. Vallet-Regí; Chem. Eur. J. 2015, 21, 15651.